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PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY(PRK)

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a type of refractive surgery. This kind of surgery uses a laser to treat vision problems caused by refractive errors. You have a refractive error when your eye does not refract (bend) light properly.

With PRK, your ophthalmologist uses a laser to change the shape of your cornea. This improves the way light rays are focused on the retina. PRK is used to treat myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism.

The goal of photorefractive keratectomy is to correct your refractive error to improve your vision. PRK may reduce your need for eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, it may even allow you to do without them completely.

Should I Get PRK?

If you have dry eyes or thin corneas and want to have refractive surgery, PRK may be a good choice for you. This is because some other types of refractive surgery, such as LASIK, are not recommended if you have these conditions.

Also, if you have a very active lifestyle or job, PRK may be a better option for you than LASIK or similar procedures. This is because PRK does not involve cutting a flap in your cornea like LASIK and similar surgeries do. If you are highly active, you could accidentally dislodge a corneal flap, causing problems.

Some people who have certain lenses put in their eyes during cataract surgery may have PRK to fine-tune their vision.

  • You should be 18 years or older (ideally, over 21 years old, when vision is more likely to have stopped changing)
  • Your eye prescription should not have changed in the last year
  • Your refractive error must be one that can be treated with PRK
  • Your corneas need to be healthy, and your overall eye health must be generally good
  • You need to have realistic expectations about what PRK can and cannot do for you.
  • An unstable (changing) refractive error
  • Skin or other disease that can affect healing
  • Ahistory of a lot of scarring
  • Cornea abrasions or disease
  • Advanced glaucoma
  • A cataract affecting vision
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Pregnant or nursing women
  • History of certain eye infections

Your ophthalmologist can talk with you about other conditions that may keep you from having PRK.

To determine whether you are a candidate for PRK, your ophthalmologist will examine your eyes. Here’s what will be done:

  • The overall health of your eyes will be checked.
  • Measurements of your cornea will be taken.
  • Your pupil size will be checked.
  • Your refractive error will be measured.

You and your ophthalmologist will discuss your vision needs based on your lifestyle. For example, if you play sports, you may be seeking clear distance vision from surgery. Also, you and your ophthalmologist should discuss your expectations for PRK. People who have PRK to achieve perfect vision without glasses or contacts run the risk of being disappointed. PRK allows people to do most of their everyday tasks without corrective lenses. However, you might need to wear glasses for certain activities, such as reading or driving at night.
Your ophthalmologist will thoroughly examine your eyes and make sure you are a candidate for PRK. Here is what he or she will do:

  • Test your vision. This is to make sure that your vision has not changed. It also shows how high your refractive error is and whether PRK can be used to correct your vision.
  • Check for other eye problems. Your ophthalmologist will make sure that you do not have eye problems. This is because other problems could affect your surgery, or PRK could make those other problems worse.
  • Measure and map the surface of your cornea. Your ophthalmologist will check the thickness of your cornea and make precise measurements of the cornea’s surface. Your eye surgeon uses these measurements to program the computer-based laser used during surgery.
  • Measure your pupil size. He or she will also measure the size of your pupil.

PRK is usually done in an outpatient surgery center. The procedure usually takes about 15 minutes. Here is what to expect:

  • Your eye will be numbed with eye drops.
  • Your eye surgeon will place an eyelid holder on your eye to keep you from blinking.
  • Then your ophthalmologist will remove the outer layer of cells on your cornea, called the epithelium. To do this, he or she may use a special brush, blade, laser or alcohol solution.
  • You will be asked to stare at a target light so that your eyes will not move. The ophthalmologist then reshapes your cornea using a laser. The laser is a special instrument that has been programmed with measurements for your eye. While your ophthalmologist is using the laser, you will hear a clicking sound.

Right after surgery, your ophthalmologist will place a “bandage” contact lens over your eye to help it heal.

  • You will need to have someone drive you home after surgery. You should plan to go home and take a nap or just relax after the surgery.
  • Your surgeon may suggest that you take a few days off from work. Also, you should avoid strenuous activity for up to a week after surgery, as this could slow the healing process.
  • For two to three days after PRK, you may have some eye pain. Over-the-counter medicine usually controls the pain. Occasionally, some people may need eye drop pain relievers or other prescription medicine to relieve pain. Be sure to call your ophthalmologist if your pain is not helped by over-the-counter medicines.
  • You will need to use eye drop medicine for up to a month or as prescribed by your ophthalmologist. Be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions for using this medicine to help healing.
  • After PRK, you will need to wear sunglasses outside for as long as your doctor tells you. This is because sun exposure can lead to corneal scarring after surgery, causing vision problems.

At first, your vision will be blurry after PRK. Over 3–5 days, as you heal, your vision will gradually improve. Keep in mind it may take a month or longer to achieve your best vision.

Like any surgery, PRK carries risks of problems or complications you should consider. These include:

  • Glare and halos around lights, particularly at night
  • Scarring of the cornea
  • Cloudiness of the cornea (called corneal haze)
  • Corneal infection

Having worse vision than before PRK, even with glasses or contacts (called loss of best-corrected vision)

Most complications can be treated without any loss of vision. However, very rare problems may include:

  • Glare and halos around lights, particularly at night
  • Blindness

If you are happy wearing contacts or glasses, you may not want to have refractive surgery. Together, you and your ophthalmologist can weigh the risks and rewards of PRK.

Pre surgery Instruction

Zymer Drop:
  • It is best to use the antibiotic drop (Vigamox) Zymer twice or more every 4 - 6 hours before the operation, no later than 24 hours.
    Follow this procedure after surgery:
  • As for the laser process, it is always a contact lens to relieve pain and to help heal the surface of the cornea and remove it after 3-5 days of healing.
  • As for Lasik, we usually do not need contact lenses
  • The gel moisturizer is started before bed after removing the lenses
  • During the patient's movement after the operation, please be sure to minimize the risk of falling Prevent driving the vehicle after the operation due to lack of visibility
  • Completely prevents eye scrub for at least 4 weeks
  • It is forbidden to use cosmetics and kohl for women for two weeks
  • It is forbidden to swim in pools with a high concentration of chlorine for at least 4 weeks or to wear safety glasses
  • It is forbidden to plunge into the water for at least 6 weeks, as well as for sauna and steam baths for 6 weeks after the procedure
  • is possible to return to work on the fifth or seventh day of the operation, especially "if the work is in offices and not field work", especially in the absence of symptoms or complications
  • It is possible to board a plane and travel on the same day as the operation
  • It is recommended to use sunglasses directly in the first days after the operation, and after that it will be used for the sun only, knowing that "lighting lights as well as the light of computer or television screens do not affect the results of the operation.
  • It is normal for a person to see halos of light and radiation around distant light sources. "Especially when a person walks or drives his car in dark roads that are the result of the expansion of the eye's boundaries in dark places, and it is possible to reduce the vision of halos by lighting one of the internal devices provided by the driver's seat or In the background of the deaconess, most of these side effects disappear after several weeks of the operation, and they may continue to have severe nearsightedness and for people who have an increase in pupil expansion in the dark for several months after the operation and may gradually fade.
  • It is normal for the vision to be blurred when waking up in the first weeks after the operation, as it is normal for fluctuations in vision and asymmetry between the eyes in the vision until the vision stabilizes from one to several weeks after the operation and depends on the degree of myopia and deviation (Astigmatism)
  • It is advised to use the drops and ointments prescribed according to the instructions and according to the prescribed periods. "Because you use moisturizing drops, they may last for long periods in the summer or people over the age of (35) years or who have symptoms of dehydration, and you are the one who uses mobile devices frequently.
  • After stopping the cortisone drops, they may develop a very small category: "It does not exceed five percent of people who suffer from redness and some eye pain or both eyes as a result of stopping the drop and in such cases they can return to it and stop it gradually" it is used for a day and leaves a day or Two days until completely stopped and continue to use moisturizing ointments and drops as follows.